Calendars Used In Bali
There are a number of calendars used in Bali that are used for different purposes depending on what region you live in and what your religious beliefs are.
Gregorian, Hindu, and Muslim Calendar
The Gregorian, Hindu, and Muslim Calendar all have different lengths of months and years. In addition to having different names for weeks, months, years, and so on. Therefore, you will end up with a very confusing system.
The Gregorian Calendar
The Gregorian calendar is Indonesia’s official calendar and most citizens.
The Islamic Calendar
The Islamic calendar is also used by the Indonesian government as well as Muslims.
A Quick Breakdown of Calendars Used in Bali
The Muslim Calendar also is known as the Hijrah lunar calendar, is roughly 10-11 days shorter than the Gregorian calendar. It is known that the calendar begins the year when Mohammad took flight from Mecca to Medina. It’s also known , the Hijrah lunar month only has 29 days.
Gregorian or Roman Calendar
This calendar is used throughout the world, and it marks its beginning with the birth of Christ. It’s Also, a year that is divided into 12 months, consisting of 30 or 31 days, except for the month of February.
Balinese Calendar –Saka-Wuku
The Saka Wuku Calander is a combination of Saka, the Hindu solar-lunar year of 12 moons, and the Javanese-Balinese Wuku calendar of 210 days which is divided into weeks. When these two calendars are combined along with the many names for the different weeks and days make the Balinese calendar, it’s a complicated puzzle to solve. So, don’t get discouraged, even experts have to use special charts and tables to figure it out.
What The Saka Wuku Is Used For
Furthermore, the Balinese calendar is used to determine birthdays (oton), or anniversaries for temples (odalan), and the many Balinese festivals. It’s also used by farmers in Bali when deciding on a good day to plant seeds. The calendar is governed by the different phases of the moon, with the full moon (Purnima), and the new moon (tilem) being most important.
The Saka calendar is a Hindu calendar that is divided into 12 lunar months of 29 to 30 days. The dates for harvest festivals, temple festivals, and the Balinese New Year are determined by this calendar. Also, Every 30 months an additional month is added to keep the saka calendar in sync with the solar year. For the year 2019 New Year’s Day was on March 7th. In 2020, it will fell on March 25th
Pawukon (210-Day Balinese-Hindu Calendar)
Here is another complicated calendar used in Bali and elsewhere in Indonesia. Even though it’s used most in Bali, The Pawukon is also used in Java for certain reasons. Additionally, The Hindu calendar is a 210-day market calendar, that combines market weeks of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 days. It’s also good to know that, 4, 8, and 9 will not divide evenly into 210, therefore special rules are applied to make it all work.
Pawukon 7 Day Week
It’s known that the Pawukon calendars seven days differ from most other calendars. In fact, Each day is given a different name with a different meaning, and have two cycles of 7-days with two different names. Here are the seven days of the week, Minggu – Sunday, Senin – Monday, Selasa – Tuesda, Rebo – Wednesday, Kemis – Thursday, Jemuah – Friday, Setu – Saturday.
Also, Each of the seven weekdays is associated with the position of the moon and the earth: 1 Sunday – standstill: 2 Monday – forward 3 Tuesday – backward 4 Wednesday – left 5 Thursday – right 6 Friday – up 7 Saturday – down. Also, the five days of the other market week represents the positions of the moon: 1 Kliwon – stand-up 3 Legi – retreat 3 Paing – in front of 4 Pon – sleep 5 Wage – sit down.
Understanding the Pranata Mangsa Calendar
The Pranata Mangsa is an annual calendar that is divided up into uneven but symmetrical lengths of the year, lines up with Indonesia’s seasons, and stands apart from any other calendar system in the world. Furthermore, the Pranata Mangsa is specifically designed for the island of Java, as it doesn’t work with the climate in other parts of Indonesia.
Pranata Mangsa 7 Day Week
Both days in the week differ between the Pranata and Mangsa Calendar, and both were given different names with different meanings. In addition, there are two 7 day cycles with two different names that run concurrently with a 5-day week, and both form a 35-day cycle.
It’s important to note, there are seven weekdays associated with the position of the moon and the earth.
- Sunday = standstill
- Monday = forward
- Tuesday = backward
- Wednesday = left
- Thursday = right
- Friday = up
- Saturday = down,
Each of the five days of the other market week represents the positions of the moon:
- Kliwon = stand-up
- Legi = retreat
- Paing = in front
- Pon = sleep
- Wage = sit down
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